School Lectures

Wed 11 Sep, 14:00 – 14:10


Wed 11 Sep, 14:10 – 15:10

Lecture1: Fundamentals of dosimetry

Adrie Bos

The Netherlands


1979  Graduated Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Free University Amsterdam (The Netherlands)

1985  Researcher, InterUniversity Reactor Institute (Delft, The Netherlands)

1990  Senior Scientist and Lecturer, Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands)


The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

Wed 11 Sep, 15:30 – 16:30

Lecture 2: Dosimetry for radiological emergency

Hiroshi Yasuda, Ph.D.



1988  Graduated Faculty of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University (Japan)

1992  Researcher, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)

2011  Project Manager, Secretariat for UNSCEAR (Austria)

2015  Professor, Hiroshima University (Japan)


When you encounter an accident/incident/anomaly associated with radiation exposure, it is crucial to immediately identify the individuals who received significant exposure levels, estimate their doses quickly (even roughly) and make it possible to provide the best medical treatment on a case-by-case basis. The lecture will present a practical guide to achieve the most appropriate dosimetry in such emergency situations.

Thu 12 Sep, 9:00 – 10:00

Lecture 3: Luminescence dosimetry

Eduardo Yukihara



2004 – 2009  Assistant Professor, Physics Department, Oklahoma State University

2009 – 2016  Associate Professor, Physics Department, Oklahoma State University

2016 – 2018  Professor, Physics Department, Oklahoma State University

2018  Associate Professor, Physics Department, Oklahoma State University

2016  Head of the Dosimetry Group, Department of Radiation Safety and Security, Paul Scherrer Institute

2018  Head of the Radiation Metrology Section, Department of Radiation Safety and Security, Paul Scherrer Institute


Luminescence remains one of the most widely used phenomenon in passive radiation dosimetry. The related techniques, thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiophotoluminescence (RPL), are the basis of successful commercial dosimetry systems. In this lecture we will explore the unifying principles behind these techniques, explore advantages and disadvantages of each one of them, and discuss the state of the art. The topic will also provide the fundamentals for other lectures in the School.

Thu 12 Sep, 10:20 – 11:20

Lecture 4: Retrospective dosimetry

Ian Bailiff



1986 Science and Engineering Research Council Advanced Fellow

1991 Lecturer, University of Durham

2003 Professor, University of Durham


Luminescent minerals within ceramic building materials have been successfully applied as surrogate dosimetry materials to important dose reconstruction studies, in particular at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and more recently in areas affected by radioactive fallout (e.g. the Nevada Test Site, the Chernobyl accident, the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Chelyabinsk, etc.).  These retrospective studies aimed to reconstruct the cumulative gamma dose years after the onset of the contamination event. Recent concerns regarding future radiological emergencies has led to widening the search for other surrogate dosimetry materials that can be used on a much shorter timescale. In this lecture we examine the range of materials and techniques that are potentially available for dosimetry investigations on long and short timescales and include practical aspects of their application.

Thu 12 Sep, 11:40 – 12:40

Lecture 5: Dosimetry using EPR

François Trompier



1997-2004 Research assistant at Atomic Energy Commission (CEA, France)

2004        Graduate in Engineering in Nuclear Sciences and Technology

2011        PhD in material sciences, Pierre et Marie Curie University

2004-      Research Scientist at The Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN, France)


The lecture will provide an overview of the various applications of EPR spectroscopy in dosimetry (Emergency dosimetry, criticality dosimetry, support in epidemiology studies, fossil dating, irradiated food identification, metrology and radiotherapy, wildlife studies,..). Basic principles EPR spectroscopy and practical aspect of EPR quantification will be covered as well as new emerging approaches/techniques in EPR dosimetry.

Thu 12 Sep, 14:10 – 15:10

Lecture 6: Particle dosimetry and track detectors

Mark Akselrod



1983             PhD in Solid State Physics, Urals Federal University (Russia)

1984-1994   Head of Dosimetry Laboratory, Urals Federal University (Russia)

1994-1998   Visiting and Research Professor, Oklahoma State University (USA)

1998- present   Chief Scientist, Executive Manager, Landauer (USA)


Heavy charge particle dosimetry and especially dosimetry of neutrons present multiple challenges and are the most difficult tasks in radiation detection. The first challenge is associated with strong dependence of most detectors on particles energy and LET. The second big challenge is caused by presence of photons in most radiation fields. The lecture will cover several particle detection techniques and will focus mostly on technologies capable of detection, visualization and spectroscopy of individual particle tracks. Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTD)are the latest advancement in this growing field.

Thu 12 Sep, 15:30 – 16:30

Lecture 7: Computational dosimetry

Steffen Greilich



1999 Graduated Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Heidelberg University (Germany)

2004 Post-doctoral fellow,  Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany)

2006 Post-doctoral fellow,  Risø National Laboratory (Denmark)

2009  Senior Scientist, Head of Research Group ‘Ion-Beam Therapy’ (from 2015), Germany Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Germany)


The computational determination of absorbed dose and related quantities is of great importance for complementing experimental studies. This session will introduce the basics concepts of Monte Carlo radiation transport modelling, its application in dosimetry and show hand-on examples for detector design and calibration.

Thu 12 Sep, 16:50 – 17:50

Exercise session: Practical exercises in luminescence dosimetry: from experimental data to model

Vasilis Pagonis



1982                   PhD in Solid State Physics, Northeastern University (USA)

1982-1986          Faculty, Allegheny College (USA)

1986                    Professor of Physics, McDaniel College (USA)


In this session, a variety of exercises will be presented dealing with practical aspects of luminescence dosimetry. Specific examples will be given of experimental data from several luminescent dosimetric materials, and the methods of analyzing the data will be summarized. Emphasis will be given on how to choose specific models for the experimental data, and how to extract the important parameters using the model. The purpose of this session is to provide a practical guide and an overview for both established and new researchers entering the field of luminescence dosimetry and its many applications. Several examples will be given of available open access software for analyzing luminescence dosimetry data, as well as examples of using specific models that have been applied for different types of materials. The exercises will cover applications using both thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signals.

Fri 13 Sep, 9:00 – 10:00

Lecture 8: Dosimetry in space and aviation

Satoshi Kodaira



2007      Ph.D., Graduate school of Science and Engineering, Waseda University (Japan)

2011      Research Scientist, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)

2014      Senior Research Scientist, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)

2017      Principal Research Scientist, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (Japan)

2018      Group Leader, Group of Space Quantum Research, QST advanced study laboratory, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (Japan)


Space is much complicated radiation field due to the mixture of various high energetic charged particles. These primary particles additionally produce various secondary particles via nuclear interactions with materials. The measurement of linear energy transfer of charged particles is essential to assess the dose equivalent in space. The lecture will present about the space radiation environment and its dosimetry.

Fri 13 Sep, 10:20 – 11:20

Lecture 9: 3D polymer gel dosimetry

Francesco d’Errico

Italy / USA


Currently working as Associate Professor of Medical Physics, Biomedical and Nuclear Engineering at the University of Pisa in Italy, with joint appointments at Yale University, at the University of Siena, Italy, and at the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil.


A lot of efforts have been devoted to development of innovative gels for application to three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry. In this lecture, some of the promising polymer gel dosimeters are introduced with their chemical compositions, formation processes, 3D reading techniques and any issues to further investigate.

Fri 13 Sep, 11:40 – 12:40

Lecture 10: Micro-dosimetry for radiation therapy

Paolo Colautti



1972   Graduated in Nuclear Physics by the University of Padova

1975   Researcher of the Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN)

1984-2014   Microdosimetry group leader at the National Laboratories of Legnaro (LNL-INFN)

2015-2019   Senior scientist at LNL-INFN


Microdosimetry is a chapter of the radiation physics. It gives a full theoretical description of the energy absorbed in a finite site caused by a single radiation event. When the site size is comparable with biological structures, microdosimetry physical quantities describe the first step of events that give eventually rise to the biological effect. Microdosimetry is nowadays the best heuristic tool to assess the biological effect of a mixed radiation field without direct biological measurements.
The lecture syllabus: i) historical background; ii) scientific background; iii) microdosimetric quantities; iv) microdosimetric detectors; v) microdosimetry for BNCT; and vi) microdosimetry for ion radiotherapy.

Fri 13 Sep, 14:10 – 15:10

Lecture 11: Advanced semiconductor detectors

Anatoly Rosenfeld



1977-1992   Engineering and research positions in Radiation Physics , Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev, Ukraine

1993-1996   Lecturer, Department of Physics, University of Wollongong (UOW), Australia

1996-1998   Senior Lecturer, Head Radiation Physics Group, Department of Physics, UoW

1999-2001   Associate Professor, Head, Group of Medical Radiation Physics, UoW

2002-2013   Professor , Director of Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, School of Physics,  UoW

2014-2015   Senior Professor, Director of Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, School of Physics UoW

2016–  Distinguished Professor, Director of Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, School of Physics UoW


Semiconductor detectors  has many advantages in applications for  passive and real time dosimetry of photon and mixed radiation fields. In this lecture we will explore fundamental principles behind operation of  the different semiconductor  radiation detectors, their advantages and disadvantages . We will discuss the state of the arts of semiconductor dosimetry with some example of their applications for electronic and medical dosimetry.

Fri 13 Sep, 15:30 – 16:30

Lecture 12: Medical radiation dosimetry

Tomas Kron



1983 – 1985  Radiation Protection Officer, Department of Technical Radiation Protection,  Gesellschaft für Strahlen und Umweltforschung, Munich, Germany

1990 – 1992 Medical Physicist in Radiation Oncology at Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney and Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong, Australia

1993 – 2001 Chief Medical Physicist, Newcastle Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Newcastle, Australia

2001 – 2004 Tomotherapy co-ordinator, London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario, Canada

2005 – 2014 Principal Research Physicist, Peter Mac Callum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia

2015 to now Director of Physical Sciences, Peter Mac Callum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia


The tremendous success of the use of ionizing radiation in medicine has resulted in medical exposures becoming one of the largest contributors to radiation exposure of humans. As such, dosimetry is essential to quantify exposure to patients, staff and the public. Solid-state dosimetry (SSD) has many advantages for this including the wide range of doses that can be detected as well as small detector size and potentially fast read-out. The lecture will include a broad introduction in the use of ionizing radiation in medicine focusing on advanced applications. Solid-state detectors and dosimeters will be contrasted with other dosimeters widely used in medical applications and an attempt made to predict the role of SSD in medicine over the next 10 years.

Fri 13 Sep, 16:50 – 17:50

Special Lecture: How to write a scientific paper

Adrie Bos

The Netherlands


1979  Graduated Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Free University Amsterdam (The Netherlands)

1985  Researcher, InterUniversity Reactor Institute (Delft, The Netherlands)

1990  Senior Scientist and Lecturer, Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands)


Prof. Bos will give you hints and tips on how to write high-quality scientific papers that must be positively accepted by reviewers and editors of well-known international journals.

Sat 14 Sep, 9:00 – 10:00

Lecture 13: Neutron dosimetry and spectrometers

Takashi Nakamura



1964  Graduated Master Course of Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University

1964  Research Associate of Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University

1973-1974  Guest Researcher of Atomic Energy Research Institute of Sweden

1975  Associate Professor of Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo

1986  Professor of Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University

2003  Professor Emeritus of Tohoku University


Several neutron spectrometers and dosemeters which we have developed are described, such as Phoswich-type spectrometer, Bonner sphere spectrometer and two-type dosemeters of high-efficiency type and lightweight type, and silicon semiconductor personal dosemeter. They are used to measure neutrons in the environment around the nuclear facilities and personal dose working there. They are also used to measure cosmic-ray neutrons on board the aircraft and in space at International Space Station.

Sat 14 Sep, 10:20 – 11:20

Lecture 14: Personal and Environmental Dosimetry

Filip Vanhavere



1999   Ph.D in applied sciences at Ghent University, Belgium

1998-present   Head of Radiation Protection Dosimetry and Calibration Group at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK•CEN

2016-present   Deputy Director of the Environment, Health and Safety Institute at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK•CEN


Occupational exposed workers are subject to dosimetric control. In most countries, passive dosimetry systems are used to verify compliance with regulatory dose limits. Active personal dosemeters (APD) are frequently used as alarm dosemeters in potential high dose areas, and help in the application of the ALARA principle.  The basic objective of a personal dosemeter is to provide a reliable measurement of the operational quantities Hp(0.07), Hp(3) and Hp(10) for all practical situations, independent of the type, energy and direction of the radiation, and with a prescribed overall accuracy. For some installations, passive environmental dosimetry is also needed, e.g. to control exposures at boundaries of installations, where the quantity H*(10) needs to be measured. In this lecture, different types of personal and environmental dosemeters will be reviewed.

Sat 14 Sep, 11:40 – 12:40

Wrap-up session: Which dosimeter is the most promising?

Stephen W.S. McKeever



1975              PhD, University of Bangor, UK.

2015              DSc, University of Bangor, UK.

1983-2016     Professor of Physics, Oklahoma State University, USA

1995-1999     Head of the Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, USA

2000-2003     Associate Dean for Research, College of Arts & Sciences, Oklahoma State University, USA

2003-2013     Vice President for Research, Oklahoma State University, USA

2011-2017     Secretary of Science & Technology, State of Oklahoma, USA

2016-present   Emeritus Regents Professor, Oklahoma State University, USA


Prof. McKeever will lead an overview and discussion of various aspects of the course material presented by the Summer School instructors. The open, interactive discussion will include both students and instructors and will include a Question-and-Answer session, with opinions and projections for future research.